In order to reduce individual variations and estimate the positive duration (Ct value < 30), B-spline basis functions (using the 4th-degree basis function) were selected to model the change of Ct value after infected (Table S1, Supplementary materials 3). In our model, ORF gene expression was slightly higher than N gene expression, with a longer positive duration (9.85 vs. 8.80 days) (Fig. 1D). Pre-symptomatic positive duration was 0.5 days and 0.15 days for N gene and ORF gene, respectively (Fig. 1D). For N gene expression, the positive duration after receiving booster dose was 9.55 days, which was slightly shorter than fully vaccinated (10.15 days) and unfully vaccinated (10.70 days) (Fig. 1E). And similar results were observed for ORF gene expression in Fig. 1F (mean duration: 8.65 vs. 9.00 vs. 9.40 days). This is consistent with what was previously described in Table 1, completed full vaccination and received booster reduces the duration of positivity, regardless of N gene or ORF gene expression.