Although studies have compared the relative severity of Omicron and Delta variants by assessing the relative risks, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the potential COVID-19 burden these variations may cause. And the contact patterns in Fujian Province, China, have not been described. We identified 8969 transmission pairs in Fujian, China, by analyzing a contact-tracing database that recorded a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in September 2021. We estimated the waning vaccine effectiveness against Delta variant infection, contact patterns, and epidemiology distributions, then simulated potential outbreaks of Delta and Omicron variants using a multi-group mathematical model. For instance, in the contact setting without stringent lockdowns, we estimated that in a potential Omicron wave, only 4.7% of infections would occur in Fujian Province among individuals aged >60 years. In comparison, 58.75% of the death toll would occur in unvaccinated individuals aged >60 years. Compared with no strict lockdowns, combining school or factory closure alone reduced cumulative deaths of Delta and Omicron by 28.5% and 6.1%, respectively. In conclusion, this study validates the need for continuous mass immunization, especially among elderly aged over 60 years old. And it confirms that the effect of lockdowns alone in reducing infections or deaths is minimal. However, these measurements will still contribute to lowering peak daily incidence and delaying the epidemic, easing the healthcare system’s burden.
Mpox has high transmissibility in MSM, which required minimize the risk of infection and exposure to high-risk populations. Community prevention and control is the top priority of interventions to contain the spread of mpox.
Background: The current outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 has caused a serious disease burden worldwide. Vaccines are an important factor to sustain the epidemic. Although with a relatively high-vaccination worldwide, the decay of vaccine efficacy and the arising of new variants lead us to the challenge of maintaining a sufficient immune barrier to protect the population. Method: A case-contact tracking data in Hunan, China, is used to estimate the contact pattern of cases for scenarios including school, workspace, etc, rather than ordinary susceptible population. Based on the estimated vaccine coverage and efficacy, a multi-group vaccinated-exposed-presymptomatic-symptomatic-asymptomatic-removed model (VEFIAR) with 8 age groups, with each partitioned into 4 vaccination status groups is developed. The optimal dose-wise vaccinating strategy is optimized based on the currently estimated immunity barrier of coverage and efficacy, using the greedy algorithm that minimizes the cumulative cases, population size of hospitalization and fatality respectively in a certain future interval. Parameters of Delta and Omicron variants are used respectively in the optimization. Results: The estimated contact matrices of cases showed a concentration on middle ages, and has compatible magnitudes compared to estimations from contact surveys in other studies. The VEFIAR model is numerically stable. The optimal controled vaccination strategy requires immediate vaccination on the un-vaccinated high-contact population of age 30-39 to reduce the cumulative cases, and is stable with different basic reproduction numbers ( R0 ). As for minimizing hospitalization and fatality, the optimized strategy requires vaccination on the un-vaccinated of both aged 30-39 of high contact frequency and the vulnerable older. Conclusion: The objective of reducing transmission requires vaccination in age groups of the highest contact frequency, with more priority for un-vaccinated than un-fully or fully vaccinated. The objective of reducing total hospitalization and fatality requires not only to reduce transmission but also to protect the vulnerable older. The priority changes by vaccination progress. For any region, if the local contact pattern is available, then with the vaccination coverage, efficacy, and disease characteristics of relative risks in heterogeneous populations, the optimal dose-wise vaccinating process will be obtained and gives hints for decision-making.
The world has undergone five waves of COVID-19 pandemics, with a sixth wave likely to be led by China as policies in China begin to relax. We reproduced the multiple Omicron waves in Singapore using a multi-dimensional model. Our model shows that the simulated epidemic curve matches the publicly reported data. And we simulated the Omicron wave after reopening in Xiamen, a city with a population size and age structure similar to Singapore based on Singapore’s experience during Omicron wave. We advocate that cities in China emulate Singapore’s response to the Omicron wave through dynamic PHSMs adjustment, thereby reducing the disease and healthcare system burden.
Objective: This study uses four COVID-19 outbreaks as examples to calculate and compare merits and demerits, as well as applicational scenarios, of three methods for calculating reproduction numbers.
Method: The epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreaks are described. Through the definition method, the next-generation matrix-based method, and the epidemic curve and serial interval (SI)-based method, corresponding reproduction numbers were obtained and compared.
Results: Reproduction numbers (Reff), obtained by the definition method of the four regions, are 1.20, 1.14, 1.66, and 1.12. Through the next generation matrix method, in region H Reff = 4.30, 0.44; region P Reff = 6.5, 1.39, 0; region X Reff = 6.82, 1.39, 0; and region Z Reff = 2.99, 0.65. Time-varying reproduction numbers (Rt), which are attained by SI of onset dates, are decreasing with time. Region H reached its highest Rt = 2.8 on July 29 and decreased to Rt < 1 after August 4; region P reached its highest Rt = 5.8 on September 9 and dropped to Rt < 1 by September 14; region X had a fluctuation in the Rt and Rt < 1 after September 22; Rt in region Z reached a maximum of 1.8 on September 15 and decreased continuously to Rt < 1 on September 19.
Conclusion: The reproduction number obtained by the definition method is optimal in the early stage of epidemics with a small number of cases that have clear transmission chains to predict the trend of epidemics accurately. The effective reproduction number Reff, calculated by the next generation matrix, could assess the scale of the epidemic and be used to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention and control measures used in epidemics with a large number of cases. Time-varying reproduction number Rt, obtained via epidemic curve and SI, can give a clear picture of the change in transmissibility over time, but the conditions of use are more rigorous, requiring a greater sample size and clear transmission chains to perform the calculation. The rational use of the three methods for reproduction numbers plays a role in the further study of the transmissibility of COVID-19.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can weaken the body’s cellular and humoral immunity and is a serious disease without specific drug management and vaccine. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics and transmissibility of HIV. Data on HIV follow-up were collected in Nanning City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous, China. An HIV transmission dynamics model was built to simulate the transmission of HIV and estimate its transmissibility by comparing the effective reproduction number (Reff ) at different stages the rapid growth period from January 2001 to March 2005, slow growth period from April 2005 to April 2011, and the plateau from May 2011 to December 2019 of HIV in Nanning City. High-risk areas of HIV prevalence in Nanning City were mainly concentrated in suburbs. Furthermore, high-risk groups were those of older age, with lower income, and lower education levels. The Reff in each stage (rapid growth, slow growth, and plateau) were 2.74, 1.62, and 1.15, respectively, which suggests the transmissibility of HIV in Nanning City has declined and prevention and control measures have achieved significant results.Over the past 20 years, the HIV incidence in Nanning has remained at a relatively high level, but its development trend has been curbed. Transmissibility was reduced from 2.74 to 1.15. Therefore, the prevention and treatment measures in Nanning City have achieved significant improvement.
The results showed the mean value of median Rt value for MPX of 1.36 (SD: 0.21) and the median R0 value of 1.63 (IQR: 1.34–1.72) where the R0 values we calculated were higher than the estimates listed on the WHO official website.
This study elaborated the natural history parameters of Delta variant, explored the differences in detection cycle thresholds (Ct) among cases. Natural history parameters were calculated based on the different onset time and exposure time of the cases. Intergenerational relationships between generations of cases were calculated. Differences in Ct values of cases by gender, age, and mode of detection were analyzed statistically to assess the detoxification capacity of cases.The median incubation period was 4 days; the detection time for cases decreased from 25 to 7 h as the outbreak continued. The average generation time (GT), time interval between transmission generations (TG) and serial interval (SI) were 3.6 ± 2.6 days, 1.67 ± 2.11 days and 1.7 ± 3.0 days. Among the Ct values, we found little differences in testing across companies, but there were some differences in the gender of detected genes. The Ct values continuous to decreased with age, but increased when the age was greater than 60.This epidemic was started from aggregation of factories. It is more reasonable to use SI to calculate the effective reproduction number and the time-varying reproduction number. And the analysis of Ct values can improve the positive detection rate and improve prevention and control measures.
Our findings imply that Omicron’s transmissibility is 1.5–1.8 times higher than that of Delta in terms of viral transmission. This is lower than the value reported by other studies, which claim that Omicron has a transmissibility 2.5 to 4 higher than that of Delta. This might be attributable to the rising rate of fully vaccinated and booster-vaccinated people. Meanwhile, the geographic variability is also linked to inconsistencies in the implementation of COVID-19 prevention and control measures in different regions. We also saw that the transmissibility of the two Omicron sub-lineages differed, with Omicron BA.2 being 1.2 times more transmissible than BA.1, which is similar to the results of several studies that suggest that BA.2 is 30 to 40 percent more infectious than BA.1. In comparison to Delta, applying a dynamic zero-COVID policy for interrupting Omicron transmission may necessitate greater preventative and control efforts.
Objectives: Computing the basic reproduction number (R 0) in deterministic dynamical models is a hot topic and is frequently demanded by researchers in public health. The next-generation methods (NGM) are widely used for such computation, however, the results of NGM are usually not to be the true R 0 but only a threshold quantity with little interpretation. In this paper, a definition-based method (DBM) is proposed to solve such a problem. Methods: Start with the definition of R 0, consider different states that one infected individual may develop into, and take expectations. A comparison with NGM has proceeded. Numerical verification is performed using parameters fitted by data of COVID-19 in Hunan Province. Results: DBM and NGM give identical expressions for single-host models with single-group and interactive R ij of single-host models with multi-groups, while difference arises for models partitioned into subgroups. Numerical verification showed the consistencies and differences between DBM and NGM, which supports the conclusion that R 0 derived by DBM with true epidemiological interpretations are better. Conclusions: DBM is more suitable for single-host models, especially for models partitioned into subgroups. However, for multi-host dynamic models where the true R 0 is failed to define, we may turn to the NGM for the threshold R 0.
This study aimed to explore whether the transmission routes of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) will be affected by tick density and meteorological factors, and to explore the factors that affect the transmission of SFTS. We used the transmission dynamics model to calculate the transmission rate coefficients of different transmission routes of SFTS, and used the generalized additive model to uncover how meteorological factors and tick density affect the spread of SFTS.In this study, the time-varying infection rate coefficients of different transmission routes of SFTS in Jiangsu Province from 2017 to 2020 were calculated based on the previous multi-population multi-route dynamic model (MMDM) of SFTS. The changes in transmission routes were summarized by collecting questionnaires from 537 SFTS cases in 2018-2020 in Jiangsu Province. The incidence rate of SFTS and the infection rate coefficients of different transmission routes were dependent variables, and month, meteorological factors and tick density were independent variables to establish a generalized additive model (GAM). The optimal GAM was selected using the generalized cross-validation score (GCV), and the model was validated by the 2016 data of Zhejiang Province and 2020 data of Jiangsu Province. The validated GAMs were used to predict the incidence and infection rate coefficients of SFTS in Jiangsu province in 2021, and also to predict the effect of extreme weather on SFTS.The number and proportion of infections by different transmission routes for each year and found that tick-to-human and human-to-human infections decreased yearly, but infections through animal and environmental transmission were gradually increasing. MMDM fitted well with the three-year SFTS incidence data (P<0.05). The best intervention to reduce the incidence of SFTS is to reduce the effective exposure of the population to the surroundings. Based on correlation tests, tick density was positively correlated with air temperature, wind speed, and sunshine duration. The best GAM was a model with tick transmissibility to humans as the dependent variable, without considering lagged effects (GCV = 5.9247E-22, R2 = 96%). Reported incidence increased when sunshine duration was higher than 11 h per day and decreased when temperatures were too high (>28°C). Sunshine duration and temperature had the greatest effect on transmission from host animals to humans. The effect of extreme weather conditions on SFTS was short-term, but there was no effect on SFTS after high temperature and sunshine hours.Different factors affect the infection rate coefficients of different transmission routes. Sunshine duration, relative humidity, temperature and tick density are important factors affecting the occurrence of SFTS. Hurricanes reduce the incidence of SFTS in the short term, but have little effect in the long term. The most effective intervention to reduce the incidence of SFTS is to reduce population exposure to high-risk environments.
Background Reaching optimal vaccination rates is an essential public health strategy to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the disease by developing an age-specific model based on the current transmission patterns of COVID-19 in Wuhan City, China. Methods We collected two indicators of COVID-19, including illness onset data and age of confirmed case in Wuhan City, from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. The reported cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, ≤ 14 years old; group 2, 15 to 44 years old; group 3, 44 to 64 years old; and group 4, ≥ 65 years old. An age-specific susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed model was developed to estimate the transmissibility and simulate the optimal vaccination strategy. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was used to estimate the transmission interaction in different age groups. Results A total of 47 722 new cases were reported in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. Before the travel ban of Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility was observed among age group 2 (Reff = 4.28), followed by group 2 to 3 (Reff = 2.61), and group 2 to 4 (Reff = 1.69). China should vaccinate at least 85% of the total population to interrupt transmission. The priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate 5% to 8% of individuals in age group 2 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% of age group 2), followed by 10% of age group 3 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% age group 3). However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing the disease severity identified individuals ≥ 65 years old as a priority group, followed by those 45–64 years old. Conclusions Approximately 85% of the total population (nearly 1.2 billion people) should be vaccinated to build an immune barrier in China to safely consider removing border restrictions. Based on these results, we concluded that 90% of adults aged 15–64 years should first be vaccinated to prevent transmission in China.
Introduction: Vaccination booster shots are completely necessary for controlling breakthrough infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China. The study aims to estimate effectiveness of booster vaccines for high-risk populations (HRPs). Methods: A vaccinated Susceptible-Exposed-Symptomatic-Asymptomatic-Recovered/Removed (SEIAR) model was developed to simulate scenarios of effective reproduction number (R eff ) from 4 to 6. Total number of infectious and asymptomatic cases were used to evaluated vaccination effectiveness. Results: Our model showed that we could not prevent outbreaks when covering 80% of HRPs with booster unless R eff =4.0 or the booster vaccine had efficacy against infectivity and susceptibility of more than 90%. The results were consistent when the outcome index was confirmed cases or asymptomatic cases.Conclusions: An ideal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination strategy for HRPs would be expected to reach the initial goal to control the transmission of the Delta variant in China. Accordingly, the recommendation for the COVID-19 booster vaccine should be implemented in HRPs who are already vaccinated and could prevent transmission to other groups.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that is regionally distributed in Asia, with high fatality. Constructing the transmission model of SFTS could help provide clues for disease control and fill the gap in research on SFTS models.We built an SFTS transmission dynamics model based on the susceptible-exposed-infectious-asymptomatic-recovered (SEIAR) model and the epidemiological characteristics of SFTS in Jiangsu Province. This model was used to evaluate the effect by cutting off different transmission routes and taking different interventions into account, to offer clues for disease prevention and control.The transmission model fits the reported data well with a minimum R2 value of 0.29 and a maximum value of 0.80, P < 0.05. Meanwhile, cutting off the environmental transmission route had the greatest effect on the prevention and control of SFTS, while isolation and shortening the course of the disease did not have much effect.The model we have built can be used to simulate the transmission of SFTS to help inform disease control. It is noteworthy that cutting off the environment-to-humans transmission route in the model had the greatest effect on SFTS prevention and control.
Background The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) causes different morbidity risks to individuals in different age groups. This study attempts to quantify the age-specific transmissibility using a mathematical model. Methods An epidemiological model with five compartments (susceptible–exposed–symptomatic–asymptomatic–recovered/removed [SEIAR]) was developed based on observed transmission features. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, those ≤ 14 years old; group 2, those 15 to 44 years old; group 3, those 45 to 64 years old; and group 4, those ≥ 65 years old. The model was initially based on cases (including imported cases and secondary cases) collected in Hunan Province from January 5 to February 19, 2020. Another dataset, from Jilin Province, was used to test the model. Results The age-specific SEIAR model fitted the data well in each age group (P < 0.001). In Hunan Province, the highest transmissibility was from age group 4 to 3 (median: β43 = 7.71 × 10− 9; SAR43 = 3.86 × 10− 8), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: β34 = 3.07 × 10− 9; SAR34 = 1.53 × 10− 8), group 2 to 2 (median: β22 = 1.24 × 10− 9; SAR22 = 6.21 × 10− 9), and group 3 to 1 (median: β31 = 4.10 × 10− 10; SAR31 = 2.08 × 10− 9). The lowest transmissibility was from age group 3 to 3 (median: β33 = 1.64 × 10− 19; SAR33 = 8.19 × 10− 19), followed by group 4 to 4 (median: β44 = 3.66 × 10− 17; SAR44 = 1.83 × 10− 16), group 3 to 2 (median: β32 = 1.21 × 10− 16; SAR32 = 6.06 × 10− 16), and group 1 to 4 (median: β14 = 7.20 × 10− 14; SAR14 = 3.60 × 10− 13). In Jilin Province, the highest transmissibility occurred from age group 4 to 4 (median: β43 = 4.27 × 10− 8; SAR43 = 2.13 × 10− 7), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: β34 = 1.81 × 10− 8; SAR34 = 9.03 × 10− 8). Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 exhibits high transmissibility between middle-aged (45 to 64 years old) and elderly (≥ 65 years old) people. Children (≤ 14 years old) have very low susceptibility to COVID-19. This study will improve our understanding of the transmission feature of SARS-CoV-2 in different age groups and suggest the most prevention measures should be applied to middle-aged and elderly people.
Background Developing countries exhibit a high disease burden from shigellosis. Owing to the different incidences in males and females, this study aims to analyze the features involved in the transmission of shigellosis among male (subscript m) and female (subscript f) individuals using a newly developed sex-based model. Methods The data of reported shigellosis cases were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention in Hubei Province from 2005 to 2017. A sex-based Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious/Asymptomatic–Recovered (SEIAR) model was applied to explore the dataset, and a sex-age-based SEIAR model was applied in 2010 to explore the sex- and age-specific transmissions. Results From 2005 to 2017, 130 770 shigellosis cases (including 73 981 male and 56 789 female cases) were reported in Hubei Province. The SEIAR model exhibited a significant fitting effect with the shigellosis data (P < 0.001). The median values of the shigellosis transmission were 2.3225 × 108 for SARmm (secondary attack rate from male to male), 2.5729 × 108 for SARmf, 2.7630 × 10-8 for SARfm, and 2.1061 × 10-8 for SARff. The top five mean values of the transmission relative rate in 2010 (where the subscript 1 was defined as male and age ≤ 5 years, 2 was male and age 6 to 59 years, 3 was male and age ≥ 60 years, 4 was female and age ≤ 5 years, 5 was female and age 6 to 59 years, and 6 was male and age ≥ 60 years) were 5.76 × 10-8 for β61, 5.32 × 10-8 for β31, 4.01 × 10-8 for β34, 7.52 × 10-9 for β62, and 6.04 × 10-9 for β64. Conclusions The transmissibility of shigellosis differed among male and female individuals. The transmissibility between the genders was higher than that within the genders, particularly female-to-male transmission. The most important route in children (age ≤ 5 years) was transmission from the elderly (age ≥ 60 years). Therefore, the greatest interventions should be applied in females and the elderly.
Background: To date, there is a lack of sufficient evidence on the type of clusters in which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is most likely to spread. Notably, the differences between cluster-level and population-level outbreaks in epidemiological characteristics and transmissibility remain unclear. Identifying the characteristics of these two levels, including epidemiology and transmission dynamics, allows us to develop better surveillance and control strategies following the current removal of suppression measures in China. Methods: We described the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and calculated its transmissibility by taking a Chinese city as an example. We used descriptive analysis to characterize epidemiological features for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence database from 1 Jan 2020 to 2 March 2020 in Chaoyang District, Beijing City, China. The susceptible-exposed-infected-asymptomatic-recovered (SEIAR) model was fitted with the dataset, and the effective reproduction number (Reff ) was calculated as the transmissibility of a single population. Also, the basic reproduction number (R0) was calculated by definition for three clusters, such as household, factory and community, as the transmissibility of subgroups. Results: The epidemic curve in Chaoyang District was divided into three stages. We included nine clusters (subgroups), which comprised of seven household-level and one factory-level and one community-level cluster, with sizes ranging from 2 to 17 cases. For the nine clusters, the median incubation period was 17.0 days [Interquartile range (IQR): 8.4-24.0 days (d)], and the average interval between date of onset (report date) and diagnosis date was 1.9 d (IQR: 1.7 to 6.4 d). At the population level, the transmissibility of the virus was high in the early stage of the epidemic (Reff = 4.81). The transmissibility was higher in factory-level clusters (R0 = 16) than in community-level clusters (R0 = 3), and household-level clusters (R0 = 1). Conclusions: In Chaoyang District, the epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 showed multi-stage pattern. Many clusters were reported to occur indoors, mostly from households and factories, and few from the community. The risk of transmission varies by setting, with indoor settings being more severe than outdoor settings. Reported household clusters were the predominant type, but the population size of the different types of clusters limited transmission. The transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was different between a single population and its subgroups, with cluster-level transmissibility higher than population-level transmissibility.
Hepatitis C imposes a heavy burden on many countries, including China, where the number of reported cases and the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased yearly from 2005 to 2012, with a stable trend after 2012. The geographical distribution of HCV infections varies widely in China, with the northwest and southwest regions and the Henan Province showing a high disease burden. Elderly, men, sexually active people, drug users, migrants, blood transfusion recipients, and renal dialysis patients have become the target populations for hepatitis C prevention and control. It is important to improve the diagnosis rate in high-risk groups and asymptomatic people. Identifying secondary HCV infections, especially in HCV patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a priority of hepatitis C prevention and control. Enhancing universal access to direct antiviral agents (DAAs) treatment regimens is an effective way to improve the cure rate of HCV infection. For China to contribute to the WHO 2030 global HCV elimination plan, strategic surveillance, management, and treatment program for HCV are needed.
Background: The disease burden of hepatitis E remains high. We used a new method (richness, diversity, evenness, and similarity analyses) to classify cities according to the occupational classification of hepatitis E patients across regions in China and compared the results of cluster analysis. Methods: Data on reported hepatitis E cases from 2008 to 2018 were collected from 24 cities (9 in Jilin Province, 13 in Jiangsu Province, Xiamen City, and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture). Traditional statistical methods were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E patients, while the new method and cluster analysis were used to classify the cities by analyzing the occupational composition across regions. Results: The prevalence of hepatitis E in eastern China (Jiangsu Province) was similar to that in the south (Xiamen City) and southwest of China (Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture), but higher than that in the north (Jilin Province). The age of hepatitis E patients was concentrated between 41 and 60 years, and the sex ratio ranged from 1:1.6 to 1:3.4. Farming was the most highly prevalent occupation; other sub-prevalent occupations included retirement, housework and unemployment. The incidence of occupations among migrant workers, medical staff, teachers, and students was moderate. There were several occupational types with few or no records, such as catering industry, caregivers and babysitters, diaspora children, childcare, herders, and fishing (boat) people. The occupational similarity of hepatitis E was high among economically developed cities, such as Nanjing, Wuxi, Baicheng, and Xiamen, while the similarity was small among cities with large economic disparities, such as Nanjing and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture. A comparison of the classification results revealed more similarities and some differences when using these two methods. Conclusion: In China, the factors with the greatest influence on the prevalence of hepatitis E are living in the south, farming as an occupation, being middle-aged or elderly, and being male. The 24 cities we studied were highly diverse and moderately similar in terms of the occupational distribution of patients with hepatitis E. We confirmed the validity of the new method on in classifying cities according to their occupational composition by comparing it with the clustering method.
Shigellosis is a heavy disease burden in China especially in children aged under 5 years. However, the age-related factors involved in transmission of shigellosis are unclear. An age-specific Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious/Asymptomatic–Recovered (SEIAR) model was applied to shigellosis surveillance data maintained by Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2005 to 2017. The individuals were divided into four age groups (≤ 5 years, 6–24 years, 25–59 years, and ≥ 60 years). The effective reproduction number (Reff), including infectivity (RI) and susceptibility (RS) was calculated to assess the transmissibility of different age groups. From 2005 to 2017, 130,768 shigellosis cases were reported in Hubei Province. The SEIAR model fitted well with the reported data (P < 0.001). The highest transmissibility (Reff) was from ≤ 5 years to the 25–59 years (mean: 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–1.17), followed by from the 6–24 years to the 25–59 years (mean: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.35–1.02), from the ≥ 60 years to the 25–59 years (mean: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.29–0.86), and from the 25–59 years to 25–59 years (mean: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.78). The highest infectivity was in ≤ 5 years (RI = 1.71), and was most commonly transmitted to the 25–59 years (45.11%). The highest susceptibility was in the 25–59 years (RS = 2.51), and their most common source was the ≤ 5 years (30.15%). Furthermore, “knock out” simulation predicted the greatest reduction in the number of cases occurred by when cutting off transmission routes among ≤ 5 years and from 25–59 years to ≤ 5 years. Transmission in ≤ 5 years occurred mainly within the group, but infections were most commonly introduced by individuals in the 25–59 years. Infectivity was highest in the ≤ 5 years and susceptibility was highest in the 25–59 years. Interventions to stop transmission should be directed at these age groups.
Objective In China, the burden of shigellosis is unevenly distributed, notably across various ages and geographical areas. Shigellosis temporal trends appear to be seasonal. We should clarify seasonal warnings and regional transmission patterns. Method This study adopted a Logistic model to assess the seasonality and a dynamics model to compare the transmission in different areas. The next-generation matrix was used to calculate the effective reproduction number (Reff) to quantify the transmissibility. Results In China, the rate of shigellosis fell from 35.12 cases per 100,000 people in 2005 to 7.85 cases per 100,000 people in 2017, peaking in June and August. After simulation by the Logistic model, the ‘peak time’ is mainly concentrated from mid-June to mid-July. China’s ‘early warning time’ is primarily focused on from April to May. We predict the ‘peak time’ of shigellosis is the 6.30th month and the ‘early warning time’ is 3.87th month in 2021. According to the dynamics model results, the water/food transfer pathway has been mostly blocked off. The transmissibility of different regions varies greatly, such as the mean Reff of Longde County (3.76) is higher than Xiamen City (3.15), higher than Chuxiong City (2.52), and higher than Yichang City (1.70). Conclusion The‘early warning time’ for shigellosis in China is from April to May every year, and it may continue to advance in the future, such as the early warning time in 2021 is in mid-March. Furthermore, we should focus on preventing and controlling the person-to-person route of shigellosis and stratified deploy prevention and control measures according to the regional transmission.
Background: Recently, despite the steady decline in the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic globally, school TB outbreaks have been frequently reported in China. This study aimed to quantify the transmissibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among students and non-students using a mathematical model to determine characteristics of TB transmission. Methods: We constructed a dataset of reported TB cases from four regions (Jilin Province, Xiamen City, Chuxiong Prefecture, and Wuhan City) in China from 2005 to 2019. We classified the population and the reported cases under student and non-student groups, and developed two mathematical models [nonseasonal model (Model A) and seasonal model (Model B)] based on the natural history and transmission features of TB. The effective reproduction number (Reff) of TB between groups were calculated using the collected data. Results: During the study period, data on 456,423 TB cases were collected from four regions: students accounted for 6.1% of cases. The goodness-of-fit analysis showed that Model A had a better fitting effect (P < 0.001). The average Reff of TB estimated from Model A was 1.68 [interquartile range (IQR): 1.20-1.96] in Chuxiong Prefecture, 1.67 (IQR: 1.40-1.93) in Xiamen City, 1.75 (IQR: 1.37-2.02) in Jilin Province, and 1.79 (IQR: 1.56-2.02) in Wuhan City. The average Reff of TB in the non-student population was 23.30 times (1.65/0.07) higher than that in the student population. Conclusions: The transmissibility of MTB remains high in the non-student population of the areas studied, which is still dominant in the spread of TB. TB transmissibility from the non-student-to-student-population had a strong influence on students. Specific interventions, such as TB screening, should be applied rigorously to control and to prevent TB transmission among students.
The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman’s correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.